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4.25 Deferred income tax

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities were as follows:

deferred income tax assets and liabilities

in CHF thousand                        
    Deferred
tax assets
  Deferred
tax liabilities
 
Balance 2017
  Deferred
tax assets
  Deferred
tax liabilities
 
Balance 2016
At 1 January   2,696   –1,954   742   5,269   –1,476   3,793
Charges to income statement   –2,779   191   –2,588   –2,547   –477   –3,024
Exchange differences   88   –17   71   –26   –1   –27
At 31 December   5   –1,780   –1,775   2,696   –1,954   742

Deferred taxes are calculated at the effective applicable rate for each company.

The net expense of the changing of deferred income taxes recognised in the income statement in 2017 primarily concerns the Industrial Systems segment. See also note 4.2.

Deferred taxes include the following capitalised losses carried forward:

Deferred income tax assets from losses carried forward:

in CHF thousand at 31 December   2017   2016
Deferred income tax assets on loss carry-forward gross
./. Allowance   –11,641   –6,343
Deferred income tax assets on loss carry-forward net   2   2,321

Deferred income tax assets arising from tax loss carry forward are recognised in as far as the related tax benefits are likely to be realised through future taxable profits. Deferred tax assets on tax loss carry-forwards correspond to accumulated taxable losses in the amount of CHF 41,240,000 (2016: CHF 31,745,000), thereof are CHF 41,218,000 (2016:  CHF 23,450,000) impaired. Tax loss carry-forwards primarily concern the Atlantic Zeiser GmbH.